[Atypical variant of hand-foot-mouth disease]

Hautarzt. 2019 Dec;70(12):964-968. doi: 10.1007/s00105-019-4452-2.
[Article in German]


An atypical variant of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) has sporadically been reported in recent years, with outbreaks in Europe, Asia, the USA and South America. A new lineage of Coxsackie virus A6 has been identified as the causative agent, a virus-type belonging to the group of enteroviruses. HFMD is transmitted through droplet infection or through faecal-oral transmission. The disease may begin with a prodromal stage and is often accompanied by fever and malaise. Typical skin findings include a papular and vesiculobullous exanthema that might be accompanied by confluent blisters (bullae), crusting, and ulceration. In contrast to "classic" HFMD, predilection sites include the dorsal aspects of the hands and feet, forearms, lower legs, neck and trunk. Oral lesions may be present, but are less often seen compared to "classic" HFMD. The course of the disease is self-limiting, with complete resolution usually within 7-14 days after disease onset. The treatment of atypical HFMD is usually symptomatic. A diagnosis of atypical HFMD might be challenging due to the polymorphous presentation of the disease. This review describes a rarely reported but more frequently diagnosed viral condition.

Keywords: Atopic eczema; Coxsackie A6 virus; Eczema coxsackium; Eczema herpeticatum; Enterovirus.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Disease Outbreaks
  • Europe
  • Exanthema* / etiology
  • Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease* / complications
  • Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease* / pathology
  • Humans
  • Skin Diseases, Vesiculobullous* / pathology