An introductory review of resistant starch type 2 from high-amylose cereal grains and its effect on glucose and insulin homeostasis

Nutr Rev. 2019 Nov 1;77(11):748-764. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nuz040.

Abstract

Refined carbohydrates result from milling techniques that remove the outer layers of a cereal grain and grind the endosperm into a flour ingredient that is devoid of dietary fiber. Technologies have been developed to produce high-amylose cereal grains that have a significantly higher resistant starch type 2 and thus dietary fiber content in the endosperm of the cereal grain, which has positive implications for human health. A review of the literature was conducted to study the effects of resistant starch type 2 derived from high-amylose grains on glucose and insulin response. While thousands of articles have been published on resistant starch, only 30 articles have focused on how resistant starch type 2 from high-amylose grains affects acute and long-term responses of glucose and insulin control. The findings showed that resistant starch has the ability to attenuate acute postprandial responses when replacing rapidly digestible carbohydrate sources, but there is insufficient evidence to conclude that resistant starch can improve insulin resistance and/or sensitivity.

Keywords: dietary fiber; glucose response; high-amylose grain; insulin response; resistant starch.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amylose / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Edible Grain / chemistry*
  • Glucose / metabolism*
  • Homeostasis
  • Humans
  • Insulin / metabolism*
  • Resistant Starch / pharmacology*

Substances

  • Insulin
  • Resistant Starch
  • Amylose
  • Glucose