Objective: Titanium mesh is a commonly used material for the reconstruction of orbital floor fractures. However, in some instances, a subsequent inflammatory reaction can occur that causes the adhesion of orbital tissue to the titanium mesh. The adhesion of the orbital soft tissue to the mesh causes diplopia, lid rigidity and extraocular movements restriction. This study was performed to determine if the placement of a collagen membrane over a titanium mesh can prevent the adhesion of orbital soft tissue for an improved clinical outcome. Clinical considerations: A case study was performed investigating 106 patients undergoing a periorbital restoration. Seventy-two patients received a titanium mesh without a barrier membrane, 12 patients received a barrier membrane composed of autologous auricular cartilage to provide a barrier function and 22 patients received a pericardium collagen membrane and titanium mesh.
Conclusions: Titanium has been shown to generate an intense inflammatory reaction in host tissues, which can cause fibrosis to adjacent structures. Fibrosis is an essential factor in the repair of fracture sites, however this can lead to adverse effects in the orbital socket. Fibrosis can cause cicatrization and lower eyelid retraction when induced along the lower orbital rim. An improved outcome can be achieved by using a barrier between the titanium mesh and the soft tissue, such as autogenous auricular cartilage, however, only patients treated with a resorbable collagen membrane to act as a soft tissue barricade during site regeneration, prevented the fibrosis reaction and related problems from occurring.
Keywords: collagen membrane; fibrosis; orbital adherence syndrome; periosteum; titanium mesh.