Accumulation of Microcystin-LR in Grains of Two Rice Varieties ( Oryza sativa L.) and a Leafy Vegetable, Ipomoea aquatica

Toxins (Basel). 2019 Jul 24;11(8):432. doi: 10.3390/toxins11080432.


The potential transfer of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) to humans via crop plants irrigated with MC-contaminated water is causing serious concern. In this study, two Oryza sativa variants, a hybrid (BG358), a traditional (Suwandel) variety, and a leafy green vegetable crop, Ipomoea aquatica, were exposed under laboratory conditions to natural blooms of Microcystis aeruginosa sampled from a hypereutrophic lake contaminated with MC-LR (3,197.37 ± 1.04 µg/L). Field samples of O. sativa and I. aquatica were collected from farmlands that had been irrigated from a reservoir, containing MC-LR (180 µg/L). MC-LR was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography followed by photodiode-array detection (HPLC-PDA). From the laboratory study, we calculated the potential human health exposure from BG358, Suwandel and I. aquatica as 2.84 ± 0.01, 0.22 ± 0.01, and 0.06 ± 0.01 µg/kg of body weight/day, respectively, whereas the potential health exposures from BG358, Suwandel and I. aquatica collected from the field were 0.10 ± 0.01, 0.009 ± 0.005, and 0.03 ± 0.01 µg/kg of body weight/day, respectively. In certain instances, the results exceeded the World Health Organization's (WHO) tolerable daily intake of MC-LR, posing a potential health risk to humans. Thus, our results emphasize the importance of continuous screening programs for cyanotoxins in edible plants in the future to prevent the consumption of contaminated crops.

Keywords: Ipomoea aquatica; Oryza sativa; human health risk; microcystins; tolerable daily intake.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Dietary Exposure
  • Edible Grain / chemistry*
  • Food Contamination / analysis
  • Humans
  • Ipomoea / chemistry*
  • Marine Toxins
  • Microcystins / analysis*
  • Oryza / chemistry*
  • Risk Assessment


  • Marine Toxins
  • Microcystins
  • cyanoginosin LR