Infrared Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Human Hair to Characterize Longitudinal Profiles of the Antiretroviral Maraviroc for Adherence Monitoring

Anal Chem. 2019 Aug 20;91(16):10816-10822. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.9b02464. Epub 2019 Aug 6.


Here, we assess infrared matrix assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (IR-MALDESI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) analysis of hair as a clinical tool for monitoring patient adherence to the antiretroviral maraviroc (MVC). A custom MATLAB-based algorithm has been developed to streamline data analysis and generate longitudinal profiles of drug incorporation along the length of hair strands. Hair strands from volunteers enrolled in a directly observed therapy study were analyzed by IR-MALDESI MSI and processed using this tool to characterize the profiles of single doses and a daily dose regimen of MVC. Single dose responses were 1.7 [1.1, 2.5] mm (median [range]) wide along the length of the hair and were detected in 8 out of 12 volunteers. Daily dose profiles capturing 28 days of continuous dosing were approximately 5 times the intensity of single dose profiles and 10.5 [7.0, 13] mm wide, corresponding to 1 month of hair growth. MVC ion abundance was observed in all 12 volunteers for the daily dosing period. Daily dosing profiles were consistent with a model of MVC accumulation in hair based on linear superposition of a single dose response, indicating the potential for prediction of daily drug-taking behavior based on deconvolution of a complex longitudinal profile in hair.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Retroviral Agents / analysis*
  • Hair / chemistry*
  • Healthy Volunteers
  • Humans
  • Infrared Rays
  • Medication Adherence*
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization


  • Anti-Retroviral Agents