Background: Termination of acute inflammation is an active process orchestrated by lipid mediators (LM) derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids, referred to as specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM). These mediators also provide novel therapeutic opportunities for treating inflammatory disease. However, the regulation of these molecules following acute myocardial infarction (MI) remains of interest.
Methods: In this prospective observational study we aimed to profile plasma levels of SPMs in ST-elevation MI (STEMI) patients during the first week following MI. Plasma LM concentrations were measured in patients with STEMI (n = 15) at three time points and compared with stable coronary artery disease (CAD; n = 10) and healthy controls (n = 10).
Findings: Our main findings were: (i) Immediately after onset of MI and before peak troponin T levels, STEMI patients had markedly increased levels of SPMs as compared with healthy controls and stable CAD patients, with levels of these mediators declining during follow-up. (ii) The increase in SPMs primarily reflected an increase in docosapentaenoic acid- and docosahexaenoic acid-derived protectins. (iii) Several individual protectins were correlated with the rapid increase in neutrophil counts, but not with CRP. (iv) A shift in 5-LOX activity from the leukotriene B4 pathway to the pro-resolving RvTs was observed.
Interpretation: The temporal regulation of SPMs indicates that resolution mechanisms are activated early during STEMI as part of an endogenous mechanism to initiate repair. Thus strategies to boost the activity and/or efficacy of these endogenous mechanisms may represent novel therapeutic opportunities for treatment of patients with MI. FUND: This work was supported by grants from the South-Eastern Norwegian regional health authority, the European Research Council under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program, a Sir Henry Dale Fellowship jointly funded by the Wellcome Trust and the Royal Society, and the Barts Charity.
Keywords: Inflammation; Myocardial infarction; Polyunsaturated fatty acids; Resolution; Specialized pro-resolving mediators.
Copyright © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.