Are three-day voiding diaries feasible and reliable? Results from the Symptoms of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Research Network (LURN) cohort

Neurourol Urodyn. 2019 Nov;38(8):2185-2193. doi: 10.1002/nau.24113. Epub 2019 Jul 25.


Aims: The aims of this study were to assess the completeness of voiding diaries in a research context and to correlate diary data with patient-reported questionnaires.

Methods: Men and women enrolled in the Symptoms of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Research Network (LURN) were given a 3-day voiding and fluid-intake diary to fill-out. Diaries were assessed for completeness and intake-output imbalances. They were assigned to one of four categories based on a percentage of missing data and fluid imbalance: no diary submitted, unusable (>40% missing void or intake volumes, or unphysiological fluid imbalance), usable but not complete, and complete.

Results: A total of 1064 participants were enrolled and 85% (n = 902) returned the bladder diary. Of the diaries returned, 94% (n = 845) had data on three separate days, 87% (n = 786) had no missing intake volumes, 61% (n = 547) had no missing voided volumes, and 70% (n = 635) had a fluid imbalance within 3 L across the 3-day time period, resulting in 50% (n = 448) of participants with 100% complete diaries. Younger age was associated with a higher likelihood of not submitting a diary, or submitting an unusable diary. Women had a higher likelihood of submitting an unusable diary or a usable but incomplete diary.

Conclusion: Overall, 50% of LURN participants returned voiding diaries with perfectly complete data. Incomplete data for voided volumes was the most common deficiency. There was only a moderate correlation between diary data and questionnaire responses, indicating that diaries are a source of unique information.

Keywords: humans; questionnaries; surveys; urinary bladder.

Publication types

  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cohort Studies
  • Data Accuracy
  • Drinking Behavior*
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms / physiopathology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Records*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Urinary Bladder
  • Urination*