Understanding Yeast Impact on 1,1,6-Trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene Formation in Riesling Wine through a Formation-Pathway-Informed Hydrolytic Assay

J Agric Food Chem. 2019 Dec 11;67(49):13487-13495. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.9b03228. Epub 2019 Aug 13.


The occurrence in Riesling wine of the potent odorant 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (TDN) is dependent upon vineyard and winemaking conditions, and TDN can have a prominent impact on the attributes of a wine after years in a bottle. As such, immediately assessing the impact of vineyard or winery treatments on future TDN formation requires forced creation of the aroma compound under non-wine-like conditions from other precursors. Here, we use a Box-Behnken approach and known TDN end points in commercial wines to optimize the conditions (pH, temperature, and time) of a "total TDN" hydrolytic assay for Riesling wine, which was intended to not interfere with yeast-derived formation pathways. The new assay (75 °C, pH 1.7, and 60 min) was used to determine the role of industry-relevant commercial yeasts as well as novel hybrid yeast strains on total TDN concentrations in young Riesling wines. While significant differences were observed between some yeasts, the impact of defoliation as a viticultural intervention outweighed yeast effects, suggesting that elevated TDN concentrations in wine are likely due to grape growing conditions and cannot be readily reduced or compensated for in the winery.

Keywords: Riesling; TDN; acid hydrolysis; actinidol; hydrolytic assay; norisoprenoid; yeast-mediated formation.

MeSH terms

  • Fermentation
  • Fruit / metabolism
  • Fruit / microbiology
  • Naphthalenes / analysis*
  • Naphthalenes / metabolism*
  • Odorants / analysis
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / metabolism*
  • Vitis / metabolism
  • Vitis / microbiology
  • Wine / analysis*


  • Naphthalenes
  • 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene