Orange peels modulate antioxidant markers and key enzymes relevant to erection in the penile tissue of paroxetine-treated rats

Andrologia. 2019 Oct;51(9):e13371. doi: 10.1111/and.13371. Epub 2019 Jul 26.


In comparison to other antidepressant drugs, erectile dysfunction (ED) is more pronounced in paroxetine use. On the other hand, orange (Citrus sinensis) peels commonly consumed in various forms are used in folkloric medicine for ED management. Thus, this study evaluated the effect of orange peels infusion on sexual behaviour, nitric oxide (NO) level and some enzymes (arginase, phosphodiesterase-5 [PDE-5], acetylcholinesterase [AChE] and adenosine deaminase [ADA]) in paroxetine-treated rats. Erectile dysfunction was induced with paroxetine (10 mg/kg body weight). The animals were grouped into five (n = 6): normal rats; paroxetine-induced rats; paroxetine-induced rats treated with sildenafil citrate (5 mg/kg); paroxetine-induced rats treated with orange peels infusion (50 mg/kg); Paroxetine induced rats treated with orange peel infusions (100 mg/kg). The results revealed a significant decrease in sexual behaviour, NO level and the activities of antioxidant enzymes, while there was a significant increase in arginase, PDE-5, AChE and ADA activities in paroxetine-induced rats. However, orange peel infusions ameliorated erectile dysfunction in paroxetine-treated rats. This study showed some possible biochemical basis underlying the use of orange peels infusion in erectile dysfunction management.

Keywords: erectile dysfunction; orange peels; paroxetine; sexual behaviour; sildenafil.

MeSH terms

  • Acetylcholinesterase / metabolism
  • Adenosine Deaminase / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation / toxicity*
  • Antioxidants / administration & dosage*
  • Arginase / metabolism
  • Citrus sinensis / chemistry*
  • Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5 / metabolism
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Erectile Dysfunction / chemically induced
  • Erectile Dysfunction / drug therapy*
  • Erectile Dysfunction / pathology
  • Female
  • GPI-Linked Proteins / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism
  • Nitric Oxide / metabolism
  • Paroxetine / toxicity*
  • Penile Erection / drug effects
  • Penis / drug effects
  • Penis / pathology
  • Plant Extracts / administration & dosage*
  • Rats
  • Sexual Behavior / drug effects
  • Sildenafil Citrate / administration & dosage
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation
  • Antioxidants
  • GPI-Linked Proteins
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Plant Extracts
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Paroxetine
  • Sildenafil Citrate
  • Acetylcholinesterase
  • Ache protein, rat
  • Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5
  • Pde5a protein, rat
  • Arginase
  • Ada protein, rat
  • Adenosine Deaminase