Female Genital and Vaginal Plastic Surgery: An Overview

Plast Reconstr Surg. 2019 Aug;144(2):284e-297e. doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000005883.


Learning objectives: After studying this article and viewing the video, the participant should be able to: 1. Accurately describe the relevant aesthetic anatomy and terminology for common female genital plastic surgery procedures. 2. Have knowledge of the different surgical options to address common aesthetic concerns and their risks, alternatives, and benefits. 3. List the potential risks, alternatives, and benefits of commonly performed female genital aesthetic interventions. 4. Be aware of the entity of female genital mutilation and differentiation from female genital cosmetic surgery.

Summary: This CME activity is intended to provide a brief 3500-word overview of female genital cosmetic surgery. The focus is primarily on elective vulvovaginal procedures, avoiding posttrauma reconstruction or gender-confirmation surgery. The goal is to present content with the best available and independent unbiased scientific research. Given this relatively new field, data with a high level of evidence are limited. Entities that may be commonly encountered in a plastic surgery practice are reviewed. The physician must be comfortable with the anatomy, terminology, diagnosis, and treatment options. Familiarity with requested interventions and aesthetic goals is encouraged.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Elective Surgical Procedures / methods
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Genitalia, Female / injuries*
  • Genitalia, Female / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Risk Assessment
  • Sex Reassignment Surgery / methods*
  • Surgery, Plastic / methods*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vagina / injuries
  • Vagina / surgery
  • Vulva / injuries
  • Vulva / surgery