Background: Hemorrhage-induced traumatic cardiac arrest (HiTCA) has a dismal survival rate. Previous studies demonstrated selective aortic arch perfusion (SAAP) with fresh whole blood (FWB) improved the rate of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after HiTCA, compared with resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers, such as hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC)-201, may alleviate the logistical constraints of using FWB in a prehospital setting. It is unknown whether SAAP with HBOC-201 is equivalent in efficacy to FWB, whether conversion from SAAP to extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is feasible, and whether physiologic derangement post-SAAP therapy is reversible.
Methods: Twenty-six swine (79 ± 4 kg) were anesthetized and underwent HiTCA which was induced via liver injury and controlled hemorrhage. Following arrest, swine were randomly allocated to resuscitation using SAAP with FWB (n = 12) or HBOC-201 (n = 14). After SAAP was initiated, animals were monitored for a 20-minute prehospital period prior to a 40-minute damage control surgery and resuscitation phase, followed by 260 minutes of critical care. Primary outcomes included rate of ROSC, survival, conversion to ECLS, and correction of physiology.
Results: Baseline physiologic measurements were similar between groups. ROSC was achieved in 100% of the FWB animals and 86% of the HBOC-201 animals (p = 0.483). Survival (t = 320 minutes) was 92% (11/12) in the FWB group and 67% (8/12) in the HBOC-201 group (p = 0.120). Conversion to ECLS was successful in 100% of both groups. Lactate peaked at 80 minutes in both groups, and significantly improved by the end of the experiment in the HBOC-201 group (p = 0.001) but not in the FWB group (p = 0.104). There was no significant difference in peak or end lactate between groups.
Conclusion: Selective aortic arch perfusion is effective in eliciting ROSC after HiTCA in a swine model, using either FWB or HBOC-201. Transition from SAAP to ECLS after definitive hemorrhage control is feasible, resulting in high overall survival and improvement in lactic acidosis over the study period.