Tobacco outlet density, neighbourhood stressors and smoking prevalence in Toronto, Canada

Health Place. 2019 Jul;58:102171. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2019.102171. Epub 2019 Jul 23.


A growing body of research has shown that neighbourhood-level factors, such as the density of retail outlets selling tobacco and neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage affect smoking prevalence, with high levels of outlet density and neighbourhood disadvantage related to higher smoking prevalence. However, few studies have considered the role of other neighbourhood processes like stressors including perceived neighbourhood disorder in these effects. The present study examined the effects of tobacco outlet density, neighbourhood income and perceived neighbourhood disorder on smoking prevalence among a representative sample of 2,412 adult neighbourhood residents in a large urban centre in Canada. Tobacco outlet density and perceived neighbourhood disorder were significantly associated with smoking in an unadjusted multilevel model, but only perceived neighbourhood disorder remained significant in a model adjusting for other confounders. Findings suggest the need for community-based interventions to address the relationship between neighbourhood disorder and smoking, as well as more research on the combined role of tobacco availability and neighbourhood stressors, beyond neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage, on smoking behaviour.

Keywords: Neighbourhood socioeconomic status; Neighbourhood stressors; Smoking; Tobacco availability; Tobacco outlet density.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Commerce
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Ontario / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Residence Characteristics*
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Tobacco Products / economics*
  • Urban Population