A healthy life style is associated with decreased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and mortality in the general population. However, there is no definitive evidence of the benefits of physical activity and other health-related behaviors in the early-stage of CKD. This study aimed to explore the association between health-related behaviors and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and mortality in the early stages of CKD. The National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2016 was used to screen 83,470 subjects with early stage CKD. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between health-related behaviors and ESRD and death. Kaplan-Meier curves for mortality and ESRD were plotted according to the physical activity, smoking status, and alcohol consumption pattern. Risk of death decreased significantly in subjects who engaged in sufficient physical activity (adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.73; 95% CI: 0.64-0.83; p < 0.001). Risk of ESRD and death increased significantly in the current smoker with adjusted HR of 1.44 (95% CI: 1.06-1.95; p < 0.02) and 1.61 (95% CI: 1.44-1.80; p < 0.001) respectively. Therefore, systematic interventions to encourage physical activity and smoking cessation need to be actively considered in the early stages of CKD.
Keywords: alcohol; chronic kidney disease; disease progression; end stage renal disease; health-related behaviors; mortality; physical activity; smoking.