Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major global health problem. We aim to evaluate the epidemiology, risk factors and outcomes of AKI episodes in our single centre.
Methodology: We prospectively identified 422 AKI and acute on chronic kidney disease episodes in 404 patients meeting KDIGO definitions using electronic medical records and clinical data from 15th July to 22nd October 2016, excluding patients with baseline estimated GFR (eGFR) of < 15 mL/min. Patients were followed up till 6 months after AKI diagnosis.
Results: The mean age was 65.8 ± 14.1. Majority of patients were male (58.2%) of Chinese ethnicity (68.8%). One hundred and thirty-two patients (32.6%) were diagnosed in acute care units. Seventy-five percent of patients developed AKI during admission in a non-Renal specialty. Mean baseline eGFR was 50.2 ± 27.7 mL/min. Mean creatinine at AKI diagnosis was 297 ± 161 μmol/L. Renal consultations were initiated at KDIGO Stages 1, 2 and 3 in 58.9, 24.5 and 16.6% of patients, respectively. Three hundred and ten (76.7%) patients had a single etiology of AKI with the 3 most common etiologies of AKI being pre-renal (27.7%), sepsis-associated (25.5%) and ischemic acute tubular necrosis (15.3%). One hundred and nine (27%) patients received acute renal replacement therapy. In-hospital mortality was 20.3%. Six-month mortality post-AKI event was 9.4%. On survival analysis, patients with KDIGO Stage 3 AKI had significantly shorter survival than other stages.
Conclusion: AKI is associated with significant in-hospital to 6-month mortality. This signifies the pressing need for AKI prevention, early detection and intervention in mitigating reversible risk factors in order to optimize clinical outcomes.
Keywords: Acute kidney injury; Dialysis; Mortality.
Conflict of interest statement
All authors have declared that they have no competing interests.
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