Depletion-of-susceptibles Bias in Analyses of Intra-season Waning of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness

Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Mar 17;70(7):1484-1486. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciz706.


Bias arises in studies of waning vaccine effectiveness when higher-risk individuals are depleted from the at-risk population at different rates between study groups. We examined how this bias arises and how to avoid it. A reanalysis of data from California confirmed a finding of intra-season waning of influenza vaccine effectiveness.

Keywords: bias; depletion of susceptibles; influenza; vaccine effectiveness; waning.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bias
  • Disease Susceptibility
  • Humans
  • Influenza Vaccines*
  • Influenza, Human* / epidemiology
  • Influenza, Human* / prevention & control
  • Seasons
  • Vaccination


  • Influenza Vaccines