Canned food intake and urinary bisphenol a concentrations: a randomized crossover intervention study

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019 Sep;26(27):27999-28009. doi: 10.1007/s11356-019-05534-y. Epub 2019 Jul 27.


Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor. To evaluate the effect of canned food consumption on internal BPA dose, urinary BPA concentrations were measured before and after intake of canned foods. This study applied a randomized crossover design, recruited 20 healthy volunteers, and divided them into two groups. One group consumed canned food; the other group consumed fresh food. After a 1-day washout, the dietary interventions were reversed. In each period, urine samples were collected immediately before meals and then 2 h, 4 h, and 6 h after meals. A mixed-effects model was used to assess BPA changes over time. Our results showed urinary BPA concentrations increased after consumption of canned food. Specifically, urinary BPA concentrations significantly differed between consumption of canned food and fresh food at 2 h, 4 h, and 6 h after intake (p values of 0.001, < 0.001, and < 0.001, respectively). Mean BPA concentrations at 2 h, 4 h, and 6 h after meals were 152%, 206%, and 79% higher, respectively, than mean BPA concentrations before meals. Urine concentration profiles of canned food intake showed that peaks were at 4 h, the increase diminished at 6 h, and returned to baseline levels at 24 h after intake. Therefore, dietary intervention and a 1-day washout period are effective for limiting internal BPA burden. This study provides convincing evidence of a human exposure route to BPA and a basis for designing interventions to mitigate exposure.

Keywords: Bisphenol A; Canned foods; Crossover study; Exposure route; Intervention.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Benzhydryl Compounds / urine*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Dietary Exposure / analysis*
  • Dietary Exposure / statistics & numerical data
  • Endocrine Disruptors / analysis
  • Environmental Pollutants / urine*
  • Female
  • Food Contamination / analysis*
  • Food Contamination / statistics & numerical data
  • Food, Preserved / analysis*
  • Food, Preserved / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Phenols / urine*
  • Young Adult


  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Endocrine Disruptors
  • Environmental Pollutants
  • Phenols
  • bisphenol A