Craniofacial Interventions in Children

Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2019 Oct;52(5):903-922. doi: 10.1016/j.otc.2019.06.002. Epub 2019 Jul 26.


Craniofacial interventions are common and the surgical options continue to grow. The issues encountered include micrognathia, macroglossia, midface hypoplasia, hearing loss, facial nerve palsy, hemifacial microsomia, and microtia. In addition, a unifying theme is complex upper airway obstruction. Throughout a child's life the focus of interventions may change from airway management to speech, hearing, and language optimization, and finally to decannulation and procedures aimed at social integration and self-esteem. Otolaryngologists play an important role is this arena and provide high-quality care while continuing to expand what can be done for our patients.

Keywords: Cleft lip; Cleft palate; Craniofacial; Free tissue transfer; Mandibular distraction; Microtia.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cleft Lip / rehabilitation
  • Cleft Lip / surgery*
  • Cleft Palate / rehabilitation
  • Cleft Palate / surgery*
  • Congenital Microtia / rehabilitation
  • Congenital Microtia / surgery*
  • Disease Management
  • Free Tissue Flaps
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Orthognathic Surgical Procedures*
  • Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures*
  • Printing, Three-Dimensional