Effects of Two Different Neuromuscular Training Protocols on Regional Bone Mass in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Front Physiol. 2019 Jul 10;10:846. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2019.00846. eCollection 2019.

Abstract

Background: Osteoporosis is a condition associated with a greater incidence of fractures, and one of the main health-related concerns in postmenopausal women. To counteract possible reductions in bone properties, physical exercise has been proposed as an effective strategy. Particularly, training interventions with a high osteogenic potential are recommended. Purpose: To analyze the effect of 24 weeks of whole-body vibration and multi-component training on lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mass, and to determine what type of training produces greater adaptations in postmenopausal women. Methods: A total of 38 women completed the study (Clinical Gov database ID: NCT01966562). Participants were randomly assigned to one of the study groups: whole-body vibration group (WBVG), multi-component training group (MTG), or control group (CG). The experimental groups performed a progressive 24-week training (3 sessions/week) program. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) at the lumbar spine and femoral neck were assessed by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: Significantly and clinically relevant increases in lumbar spine bone mass (BMD: F = 3.29; p = 0.03; +5.15%; BMC: F = 2.90; p = 0.05; +10.58%) were observed in WBVG. MTG showed clinically important pre-post-changes on lumbar spine BMC (+7.78%), although there was no statistical significance (F = 1.97; p = 0.14). At the femoral neck, no statistically significant increases on bone mass were obtained in either training group. No changes were obtained in any variable in the CG. Additionally, no statistically significant differences were found between groups. Conclusion: The results indicated that 24 weeks of supervised WBV and MT may counteract the rapid loss of bone mass after the cessation of menstruation, thus improving postmenopausal women bone health. However, in the absence of statistically significant differences between groups, it is not possible to determine which training protocol produces greater adaptations. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrialsgov, identifier: NCT01966562.

Keywords: bone density; combined training; exercise; menopause; osteoporosis; vibration.

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT01966562