: Reducing preventable medical errors remains a universal goal, yet implementing effective solutions remains a challenge. The development of surgical data recording technology shows promise to generate robust qualitative and quantitative data in the surgical theater. These data can allow physicians and their teams to capture specific sources of error and implement corrective interventions. Surgical data recording technology encompasses rudimentary data tabulation on notecards, to integrated audio-video systems containing cameras, microphones, and sensors, capturing and synthesizing intraoperative, environmental, and instrumentation information, along with devices tailored to robotic surgical systems. There is growing interest in the implementation of such technology in medical centers, particularly in the United States, Canada, and Europe, but existing medicolegal and regulatory challenges necessitate further research and clinical assessment in order for this technology to facilitate improved surgical patient safety.