Asthma is a common, heterogeneous and serious disease with high prevalence globally. Poorly controlled, steroid-resistant asthma is particularly important as there are no effective therapies and it exerts substantial healthcare and societal burden. The role of microbiomes, particularly in chronic diseases has generated considerable interest in recent times. Existing evidence clearly demonstrates an association between asthma initiation and the microbiome, both respiratory and gastro-intestinal, although its' roles are poorly understood when assessing the asthma progression or heterogeneity (i.e. phenotypes/endotypes) across different geographical locations. Moreover, modulating microbiomes could be preventive and/or therapeutic in patients with asthma warrants urgent attention. Here, we review recent advances in assessing the role of microbiomes in asthma and present the challenges associated with the potential therapeutic utility of modifying microbiomes in management.
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