Using informatics and mobile health to improve medication safety monitoring in kidney transplant recipients

Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2019 Jul 18;76(15):1143-1149. doi: 10.1093/ajhp/zxz115.


Purpose: The development, testing, and preliminary validation of a technology-enabled, pharmacist-led intervention aimed at improving medication safety and outcomes in kidney transplant recipients are described.

Summary: Medication safety issues, encompassing medication errors (MEs), medication nonadherence, and adverse drug events (ADEs), are a predominant cause of poor outcomes after kidney transplantation. However, a limited number of clinical trials assessing the effectiveness of technology in improving medication safety and outcomes in transplant recipients have been conducted. Through an iterative, evidence-based approach, a technology-enabled intervention aimed at improving posttransplant medication safety outcomes was developed, tested, and preliminarily validated. Early acceptability and feasibility results from a prospective, randomized controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of this system are reported here. Of the 120 patients enrolled into the trial at the time of writing, 60 were randomly assigned to receive the intervention. At a mean ± S.D. follow-up of 5.8 ± 4.0 months, there were 2 patient dropouts in the intervention group, resulting in a retention rate of 98%, which was higher than the expected 90% retention rate.

Conclusion: The development and deployment of a comprehensive medication safety monitoring dashboard for kidney transplant recipients is feasible and acceptable to patients in the current healthcare environment. An ongoing randomized controlled clinical trial is assessing whether such a system reduces MEs and ADRs, leading to improved patient outcomes.

Keywords: informatics; kidney transplantation; medication safety; mobile health.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Drug Monitoring / methods*
  • Electronic Health Records / statistics & numerical data
  • Evidence-Based Pharmacy Practice / methods
  • Evidence-Based Pharmacy Practice / organization & administration*
  • Female
  • Graft Rejection / epidemiology
  • Graft Rejection / prevention & control
  • Graft Survival
  • Health Plan Implementation
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Internet
  • Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects*
  • Male
  • Medication Adherence
  • Medication Errors / prevention & control
  • Mobile Applications
  • Pharmacists / organization & administration
  • Professional Role
  • Program Development
  • Prospective Studies
  • Smartphone
  • Telemedicine / methods
  • Telemedicine / organization & administration*
  • Transplant Recipients*
  • Young Adult


  • Immunosuppressive Agents