Lipid phosphate phosphatase 3 (LPP3), encoded by the PLPP3 gene, is an integral membrane enzyme that dephosphorylates phosphate esters of glycero- and sphingophospholipids. Cell surface LPP3 can terminate the signaling actions of bioactive lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1 phosphate, which likely explains its role in developmental angiogenesis, vascular injury responses, and cell migration. Heritable variants in the final intron PLPP3 associate with interindividual variability in coronary artery disease risk that may result from disruption of enhancer sequences that normally act in cis to increase expression of the gene. However, the mechanisms regulating PLPP3 expression are not well understood. We show that the human PLPP3 promoter contains three functional NF-κB response elements. All of these are required for maximal induction of PLPP3 promoter activity in reporter assays. The identified sequences recruit RelA and RelB components of the NF-κB transcription complex to chromatin, and these transcription factors bind to the identified target sequences in two different cell types. LPA promotes binding of Rel family transcription factors to the PLPP3 promoter and increases PLPP3 gene expression through mechanisms that are attenuated by an NF-κB inhibitor, LPA receptor antagonists, and inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3 kinase. These findings indicate that up-regulation of PLPP3 during inflammation and atherosclerosis results from canonical activation of the NF-κB signaling cascade to increase PLPP3 expression through nuclear import and binding of RelA and RelB transcription factors to the PLPP3 promoter and suggest a mechanism by which the LPP3 substrate, LPA, can regulate PLPP3 expression.
Keywords: glycerophospholipid; glycerosphingolipid; lysophospholipid; phosphatase; transcription promoter.