Lowering Risk for Significant Behavior Problems Through Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention: Effects of the Tools for Getting Along Curriculum 2 Years Following Implementation

J Prim Prev. 2019 Aug;40(4):463-482. doi: 10.1007/s10935-019-00554-3.


To address the needs of students at risk for significant behavior problems, educators need efficient, effective, and feasible preventive classroom interventions that increase students' ability to regulate their own behavior. Tools for Getting Along is a universally delivered cognitive-behavioral curriculum designed to address early emotional and behavioral risk among fourth and fifth grade students within the general classroom setting. We used latent growth model statistical methodology to investigate the effects of Tools for Getting Along 2 years following treatment cessation on students who evidenced baseline risk relative to peers. We followed an average of 455 students across measure-specific baseline risk groups at pretest, posttest, 1-year post-treatment, and 2-years post-treatment. Growth models fit data for four (behavior regulation, metacognition, aggression, and behavioral adjustment) of the eight factors used to assess emotional and behavioral outcomes. Findings indicated a long-term positive treatment effect for students at baseline risk on behavior regulation and general behavioral adjustment. We discuss how findings related to long-term treatment benefits add to prior research on Tools for Getting Along and to the evaluation of preventive treatment effects on emotional and behavioral risk over time.

Keywords: At-risk; Behavior problems; Cognitive-behavioral interventions; Executive function; Self-regulation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aggression / psychology
  • Child
  • Child Behavior Disorders / therapy*
  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy / methods*
  • Curriculum
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Schools
  • Students