Early, Non-Invasive Sensing of Sustained Hyperglycemia in Mice Using Millimeter-Wave Spectroscopy

Sensors (Basel). 2019 Jul 30;19(15):3347. doi: 10.3390/s19153347.


Diabetes is a very complex condition affecting millions of people around the world. Its occurrence, always accompanied by sustained hyperglycemia, leads to many medical complications that can be greatly mitigated when the disease is treated in its earliest stage. In this paper, a novel sensing approach for the early non-invasive detection and monitoring of sustained hyperglycemia is presented. The sensing principle is based on millimeter-wave transmission spectroscopy through the skin and subsequent statistical analysis of the amplitude data. A classifier based on functional principal components for sustained hyperglycemia prediction was validated on a sample of twelve mice, correctly classifying the condition in diabetic mice. Using the same classifier, sixteen mice with drug-induced diabetes were studied for two weeks. The proposed sensing approach was capable of assessing the glycemic states at different stages of induced diabetes, providing a clear transition from normoglycemia to hyperglycemia typically associated with diabetes. This is believed to be the first presentation of such evolution studies using non-invasive sensing. The results obtained indicate that gradual glycemic changes associated with diabetes can be accurately detected by non-invasively sensing the metabolism using a millimeter-wave spectral sensor, with an observed temporal resolution of around four days. This unprecedented detection speed and its non-invasive character could open new opportunities for the continuous control and monitoring of diabetics and the evaluation of response to treatments (including new therapies), enabling a much more appropriate control of the condition.

Keywords: early diabetes detection; functional principal component analysis; millimeter-wave spectroscopy; non-invasive diagnosis techniques; sustained hyperglycemia.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Glucose / isolation & purification*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / diagnosis*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hyperglycemia / diagnosis*
  • Hyperglycemia / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Spectrum Analysis / methods*


  • Blood Glucose