Purpose of review: To provide an overview of common molecular risk factors in endometrial cancer (EC) with the possibility to improve adjuvant treatment selection.
Recent findings: Recent studies have discovered and confirmed four different molecular subclasses in EC, with each having a distinct prognosis; POLE-ultramutated, microsatellite unstable, copy-number low, and copy-number high. Subsequent studies have shown that combining both molecular with clinicopathological risk factors can potentially improve adjuvant treatment selection for women with high-intermediate risk EC. For high risk and advanced stage EC, several molecular alterations are being explored for targeted therapy. Molecular alterations are frequently found in endometrial cancer and have currently not been implemented in the treatment guidelines for EC. Assessment of molecular alterations can distinguish patients that require less or more intensified adjuvant treatment. Trials investigating targeted therapies in EC are ongoing and have shown some promising results, however, more evidence is needed and results of randomized trials have to be awaited.
Keywords: Adjuvant treatment; Checkpoint inhibitors; Chemotherapy; Endometrial cancer; Molecular alterations; Molecular risk factors; PARP inhibitors; Radiotherapy; Targeted therapies.