Background and aims: Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disorder associated with intestinal dysbiosis. This study aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of different methods of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), a potential therapy for CD.
Methods: Patients with CD were randomized to receive FMT by gastroscopy or colonoscopy; a second transplantation was performed 1 week later. Patients were assessed by clinical evaluation and serum testing (at weeks 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8) and endoscopy (8 weeks after transplantation). Fecal DNA was extracted and analyzed using the Illuminal sequencing platform.
Results: Of the 27 patients included in the study, clinical remission was achieved in 18 (66.7%); no significant difference was seen between the two methods. 76.9% of gastroscopy group patients and 64.3% of colonoscopy group patients experienced mild adverse events during or shortly after treatment. Microbiota diversity analyses showed that, in comparison with the donors, patients had lower operational taxonomic units (OTU; 117 vs. 258, p < 0.05) and Shannon diversity index (2.05 vs. 3.46, p < 0.05). The CD patients showed a significant increase in OTU and Shannon diversity index 2 weeks after FMT. In comparison with the donors, CD patients had lower levels of Bacteroides, Eubacterium, faecalibacterium, and Roseburia, and higher levels of Clostridium, Cronobacter, Fusobacterium, and Streptococcus.
Conclusions: FMT was seen to be safe and effective in this cohort of patients with CD. No significant differences in clinical remission rate and adverse events were seen between the gastroscopy and colonoscopy groups. FMT was seen to increase the species richness in CD patients.
Keywords: Clinical trial; Crohn’s disease; Fecal microbiota transplantation; Intestinal dysbacteriosis.
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