Increased Dairy Product Intake Alters Serum Metabolite Profiles in Subjects at Risk of Developing Type 2 Diabetes

Mol Nutr Food Res. 2019 Oct;63(19):e1900126. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201900126. Epub 2019 Aug 7.


Scope: Metabolomics is increasingly used to identify biomarkers of diet or chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. Yet, metabolite signatures following dairy intake in hyperinsulinemic subjects have not been identified. The objective is to evaluate the effects of a high dairy diet (HD) for 6 weeks (4 servings or more per day), compared with an adequate dairy diet (AD) (2 servings or less per day), on serum metabolite profiles in hyperinsulinemic adults.

Methods and results: In this crossover trial, subjects are randomized to HD or AD for 6 weeks. Serum metabolites are assessed using GC/MS. Twenty-six subjects completed the study. Levels of pentadecanoic acid, tyrosine and lathosterol are increased in HD, while 1,5-anhydrosorbitol, myo-inositol, 3-aminoisobutyric acid and beta-sitosterol are decreased (p < 0.05). Sorbitol levels are increased after AD, while hexanoic acid, lauric acid, l-kynurenine, methionine, and benzoic acid levels are reduced (p < 0.05). Histidine, caprylic acid, nonanoic acid, decanoic acid, lauric acid, heptadecanoic acid, and benzoic acid levels are increased in HD compared to AD, while malic acid levels are increased in AD compared with HD (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Higher dairy products intake modifies metabolite profiles in hyperinsulinemic subjects.

Keywords: biomarkers; gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; hyperinsulinemia; metabolite profiling; milk; prediabetes.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Amino Acids / blood
  • Biomarkers / blood*
  • Canada
  • Carbohydrates / blood
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Dairy Products*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood*
  • Diet*
  • Fatty Acids / blood
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hyperinsulinism / blood*
  • Male
  • Metabolome / physiology*
  • Middle Aged


  • Amino Acids
  • Biomarkers
  • Carbohydrates
  • Fatty Acids

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