Purpose: To analyze the evolution of type 1 neovascularization associated with vascularized serous pigment epithelial detachment (vsPED) using three-dimensional, volumetric, en face optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA).
Methods: This was a retrospective case series from four tertiary medical centers. OCTA images were analyzed at baseline and at the 3-, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up visit when available. Visual acuity, number of injections, PED maximal height and PED area and volume, and choroidal neovascularization (CNV) flow area and progression were determined at each visit. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of CNV progression (including CNV/PED flow area) and final PED morphology was performed to determine anatomic outcomes.
Results: Twenty-four eyes in 22 patients were studied. Median follow-up was 20 months. Across all eyes, maximum PED height decreased from 395.5 to 369.5 μm while CNV/PED flow ratio increased from 27.3% to 40.2%. Median visual acuity was unchanged at 20/40. Final PED outcomes included filled fibrovascular versus persistent vsPED. Filled vsPEDs decreased in PED height and volume and displayed a multilayered morphology in contrast to persistent vsPEDs. Fibrovascular PEDs received on average seven less injections as compared to persistent vsPEDs.
Conclusions: Three-dimensional, volumetric, en face OCTA analysis of vsPED progression illustrated two anatomic outcomes: filled, typically multilayered fibrovascular PED versus persistent vsPED. The filled multilayered PED displayed a reduction in PED height and volume, greater CNV/PED flow ratio, and fewer anti-VEGF injections versus the persistent vsPED and may represent a more stable anatomic outcome while the persistent vsPED may indicate a more unstable morphology.