Viruses have some characteristics in common with cell-based life. They can evolve and adapt to environmental conditions. Directed evolution can be used by researchers to produce viral strains with desirable phenotypes. Through bioselection, improved strains of oncolytic viruses can be obtained that have better safety profiles, increased specificity for malignant cells, and more efficient spread among tumor cells. It is also possible to select strains capable of killing a broader spectrum of cancer cell variants, so as to achieve a higher frequency of therapeutic responses. This review describes and analyses virus adaptation studies performed with members of four RNA virus families that are used for viral oncolysis: reoviruses, paramyxoviruses, enteroviruses, and rhabdoviruses.
Keywords: directed viral evolution; oncolytic viruses; virus adaptation; virus selection.
Conflict of interest statement
Mr. Sergei S Zainutdinov reports grants from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, during the conduct of the study. The authors report no other conflicts of interest in this work.
Mechanisms of Oncolysis by Paramyxovirus SendaiOV Matveeva et al. Acta Naturae 7 (2), 6-16. PMID 26085940.Some viral strains of the Paramyxoviridae family may be used as anti-tumor agents. Oncolytic paramyxoviruses include attenuated strains of the measles virus, Newcastle di …
[Oncolytic Paramyxoviruses: Mechanism of Action, Preclinical and Clinical Studies]OV Matveeva et al. Mol Biol (Mosk) 52 (3), 360-379. PMID 29989571. - ReviewPreclinical studies demonstrate that a broad spectrum of human and animal malignant cells can be killed by oncolytic paramyxoviruses, which includes cells of ecto-, endo- …
[Oncolytic Enteroviruses]PM Chumakov et al. Mol Biol (Mosk) 46 (5), 712-25. PMID 23156670. - ReviewIncreasing information concerning molecular biology of viruses and virus-cell interactions makes it possible to use viruses as a tool in effort to treat cancer diseases. …
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Experimental Evolution Generates Novel Oncolytic Vesicular Stomatitis Viruses With Improved Replication in Virus-Resistant Pancreatic Cancer CellsSL Seegers et al. J Virol 94 (3). PMID 31694943.Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) based oncolytic viruses are promising agents against various cancers. We have shown that pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cell lin …