A meta-analysis of cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) comparing glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) and placebo concerning cardiorenal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is presented. An electronic search without language restrictions up to June 15, 2019 was conducted to determine eligible trials. A meta-analysis of available trial data was undertaken, using a random-effects model to calculate overall hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Data from seven CVOTs, comprising 56 004 patients (68.9% with established cardiovascular disease) were included. GLP-1RA reduced major cardiovascular events (MACE) by 13% (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80-0.96; P = 0.011) with a non-significant heterogeneity between subgroups of patients with and without cardiovascular disease (CVD) (P = 0.220). GLP-1RA also reduced the risk of cardiovascular death by 12%, of non-fatal stroke by 16%, of hospitalization for heart failure by 9%, of all-cause mortality by 11%, and the broad composite kidney outcome by 17%; the latter appeared to be driven only by a reduction in macroalbuminuria (HR, 0.76 [0.68-0.86]; P = 0.003). GLP-1RAs have moderate benefits concerning MACE, and also reduce hospitalization for heart failure and all-cause mortality; they also robustly reduce the incidence of macroalbuminuria, without affecting the progression of diabetic renal disease.
Keywords: GLP-1RA; albiglutide; cardiorenal outcomes; cardiovascular outcome trials; dulaglutide; exenatide; liraglutide; lixisenatide; oral semaglutide; semaglutide; type 2 diabetes.
© 2019 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.