Impact of Cognitive Measures and Sleep on Acute Squat Strength Performance and Perceptual Responses Among Well-Trained Men and Women

J Strength Cond Res. 2021 Feb 1;35(Suppl 1):S16-S22. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000003202.


Haischer, MH, Cooke, DM, Carzoli, JP, Johnson, TK, Shipherd, AM, Zoeller, RF, Whitehurst, M, and Zourdos, MC. Impact of cognitive measures and sleep on acute squat strength performance and perceptual responses among well-trained men and women. J Strength Cond Res 35(2S): S16-S22, 2021-This study assessed the efficacy of currently used assessments for sleep, anxiety, and stress in predicting 1-repetition maximum (1RM) back squat performance. Fifty-three men (age, 23 ± 3 years; body mass, 86.67 ± 13.93 kg; training age, 6.0 ± 2.5 years; 1RM = 163.5 ± 39.5 kg) and 15 women (age, 21 ± 1.5 years; body mass, 63.34 ± 9.6 kg; training age, 4 ± 1.5 years; 1RM = 81.5 ± 12.5 kg) participated. Subjects completed the Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes (DALDA), the revised Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2R), and Oviedo Sleep Questionnaire (OSQ) to evaluate stress, anxiety, and sleep, respectively. Subjects then completed the perceived self-efficacy (PSE) scale, to predict what loads they were 100, 75, and 50% confident that they could lift for a 1RM; then completed 1RM testing with rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and average concentric velocity (ACV) obtained on each attempt. The performance-dependent variable was calculated by subtracting the PSE responses from the actual 1RM (1RM-PSE difference). Bootstrapping with 1,000 replicate samples was used with linear regression to increased robustness of the statistical analyses, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Hours of sleep was an inverse predictor of ACV (p = 0.014; 95% CI = 0.046 to-0.011) and a positive predictor of RPE (p = 0.005; 95% CI = 0.068-0.342). Furthermore, the hypersomnia subscale of the OSQ was a negative predictor of 1RM-PSE difference at 50% confidence (p = 0.028; 95% CI = -3.507 to -0.528), and CSAI-2R total score was a negative predictor of RPE at 1RM (p = 0.043; 95% CI = -0.041 to -0.003); however, the DALDA did not exhibit any significant relationships. These data highlight the importance of monitoring anxiety and sleep when assessing readiness for maximal strength performance.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cognition
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Muscle Strength
  • Posture
  • Resistance Training*
  • Sleep
  • Weight Lifting*
  • Young Adult