Non-REM Parasomnia: The Promise of Precision Medicine

Sleep Med Clin. 2019 Sep;14(3):363-370. doi: 10.1016/j.jsmc.2019.05.002. Epub 2019 Jul 1.


Our understanding of non-REM parasomnias is just beginning to unfold the potential biomarkers and underlying pathophysiologic processes that lead to these events. Biomarkers need further investigation and will help us to understand better ways to develop risk models and possible mechanisms. Similarly, as we develop more accurate pathophysiologic-based diagnostic testing for non-REM parasomnias, we will begin the evolution toward a physiologic-based classification scheme that aids the application of precision medicine. This article explores currently known characteristics and exploratory features that may aid in this transition to better understanding our individual patients with non-REM parasomnias and tailoring their treatments.

Keywords: Confusional arousals; Disorders of arousal; NREM parasomnias; Precision medicine; Sleep related eating disorder; Sleep terrors; Sleepwalking.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antidepressive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Benzodiazepines / therapeutic use
  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
  • HLA Antigens / genetics
  • Humans
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives / therapeutic use
  • Parasomnias / diagnosis*
  • Parasomnias / genetics
  • Parasomnias / physiopathology
  • Parasomnias / therapy
  • Pharmacogenetics
  • Precision Medicine


  • Antidepressive Agents
  • HLA Antigens
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives
  • Benzodiazepines