Socioeconomic status is an important determinant of health. Its impact on kidney transplantation outcome has been studied among adults but data in children are scarce, especially in Europe. Here, we investigate the association between the level of social deprivation (determined by the continuous score European Deprivation Index) and graft failure risk in pediatric kidney transplant recipients. All patients listed under 18 years of age who received a first kidney transplant between 2002 and 2014 in France were included. Of 1050 kidney transplant recipients (males 59%, median age at transplantation 13.2 years, preemptive transplantation 23%), 211 graft failures occurred within a median followup of 5.9 years. Thirty-seven percent of these patients belong to the most deprived quintile, suggesting that deprivation is more frequent in pediatric patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) than in the general population. Five- and ten-year graft survival were 85% and 69%, respectively, in the most deprived quintile vs. 90% and 83%, respectively, in the least deprived quintile. At any time after transplantation, patients in the most deprived quintile had almost a two-fold higher hazard of graft failure compared with the least deprived quintile, after adjustment for age at renal replacement therapy, duration of dialysis, primary kidney disease, and rural/urban living environment (hazard ratio 1.99; 95% confidence interval 1.20-3.28). The hazard of graft failure did not differ significantly between girls and boys. Thus, our findings suggest a lower socioeconomic status is independently associated with poor graft outcome in pediatric kidney transplantation.
Keywords: French European Deprivation Index; deprivation; end-stage kidney disease; kidney graft failure; pediatric kidney transplantation.
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