Outcomes After Percutaneous Angioplasty of Arteriovenous Fistulas and Grafts in African American Patients

Can Assoc Radiol J. 2019 Aug;70(3):300-306. doi: 10.1016/j.carj.2019.04.003.

Abstract

Purpose: Arteriovenous fistulas and grafts, necessary for hemodialysis, may develop stenoses due to neointimal hyperplasia, which often require percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Patient and lesion characteristics were evaluated prior to angioplasty and were correlated with 1- and 6-month outcomes.

Materials and methods: This was an observational study of African American hemodialysis patients who presented for angioplasty of a dysfunctional fistula or graft. Clinical outcomes were ascertained from dialysis facilities 1 month and 6 months after angioplasty. One-month clinical success was defined as dialyzer blood flows of 450 mL/min without complications or interval shunt thrombosis, interventions, or loss of access, which was rarely achieved at 6 months. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations of clinical variables with outcomes.

Results: There were 150 stenoses treated during 99 procedures performed on 82 patients. The clinical success rate at one month was 67% with no complications as a result of the percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Success at 1 month was positively associated with use of aspirin (P = .005) and with referral for high venous pressures (P = .004). Six-month data were available for 81 procedures, with 45.7% requiring repeat angioplasty and 12.3% suffering major complications (thrombectomy, revision surgery, or access abandonment). Major complications were seen predominantly in patients who were not receiving aspirin.

Conclusions: Aspirin use and high venous pressure were associated with 1-month clinical success and fewer major complications at 6 months. Future work should investigate biologic mechanisms of action of aspirin and long-term effects of use to maintain vascular access.

Keywords: Arteriovenous fistula; Arteriovenous graft; Hemodialysis; Percutaneous angioplasty.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Angioplasty / methods*
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / administration & dosage
  • Arteriovenous Fistula / etiology
  • Arteriovenous Fistula / therapy*
  • Aspirin / administration & dosage
  • Black or African American / statistics & numerical data*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Renal Dialysis / adverse effects*
  • Treatment Outcome

Substances

  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Aspirin