Inclusion of electronic nicotine delivery systems in indoor smoke-free air policies and associated vaping behavior

Addict Behav. 2019 Nov;98:106061. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2019.106061. Epub 2019 Jul 26.


Introduction: Despite an ongoing debate over regulations of use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) in public places, fourteen U.S. states or territories banned use of ENDS in indoor areas such as workplaces, restaurants, or bars (aerosol-free policies), as of March 31 ,2018. However, there is a paucity of studies on state-level aerosol-free policies. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between statewide aerosol-free policies and U.S. adults' ENDS use.

Methods: We analyzed data from the 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults (N = 240,849, ages 18-59 years), using multilevel logistic regressions, taking into account clustering of individuals within a state. We conducted stratified analyses by age groups to examine if the association between aerosol-free policy and ENDS use would be different between different age groups of adults.

Results: Adults living in the states with an aerosol-free policy were less likely to use ENDS compared with those living in the states without an aerosol-free policy, controlling for individual- and state-level covariates (adjusted odds ratio = 0.79, 95% confidence interval = 0.64, 0.97). Stratified analyses showed that the association varied by age group; the statewide aerosol-free policies was associated with lower odds of ENDS use only in adults aged 25-59 but not young adults (aged 18-24).

Conclusions: The results supported enforcement of prohibiting ENDS as well as traditional tobacco product indoor areas as a means of ENDS use prevention. Our findings also confirmed that young adults should be a priority target population for ENDS use prevention policies and programming efforts.

Keywords: Electronic nicotine delivery systems; Indoor smoke-free air policy; Young adults.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Air Pollution, Indoor / legislation & jurisprudence*
  • Air Pollution, Indoor / prevention & control*
  • Air Pollution, Indoor / statistics & numerical data
  • Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems* / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Smoke-Free Policy / legislation & jurisprudence*
  • United States
  • Vaping / epidemiology
  • Vaping / legislation & jurisprudence*
  • Vaping / psychology*
  • Young Adult