Self-related processing pertains to the complex construct of 'self', as studied across varied disciplines such as cognitive science, neuroscience, modern psychology (including clinical and behavioral psychology), and Western and Eastern philosophy. On a theoretical level, most contemporary models propose that mindfulness training impacts self-related processes. In this review, the empirical evidence for this hypothesis is examined and discussed. Overall, very few self-related processes have been measured in randomized controlled trials of mindfulness-based interventions to date, and, of those processes that have been measured, only negative self-rumination improved significantly. The data so far remain inconclusive as to whether mindfulness-based interventions have an impact on other self-related processes. Studies are especially needed on more basic levels of self such as embodiment and sense of agency.
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