Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder in children and adults. It is characterized by inappropriate levels of inattention (IA) and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity (HI). The ADHD diagnosis is hypothesized to represent the extreme of a continuous distribution of ADHD symptoms in the general population. In this study, we investigated whether factors linked to adult ADHD as a disorder are associated with adult ADHD symptoms in the general population. Our population-based sample included 4987 adults (mean age 56.1 years; 53.8% female) recruited by the Nijmegen Biomedical Study (NBS). Participants completed the Dutch ADHD DSM-IV Rating Scale for current and childhood ADHD symptoms, the Symptom Check List-90-R (SCL-90-R) anxiety subscale, and the Eysenk Personality Questionnaire (EPQR-S). Partial Spearman correlation and Hurdle negative binomial regression analysis were used to assess how age, sex, childhood ADHD symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, and psychoticism) are associated with current IA and HI symptoms. Increasing age was associated with a lower proportion of participants reporting HI symptoms and with reduced levels of HI; IA levels remained fairly stable over the age-range, but the probability of reporting IA symptoms increased throughout middle/late adulthood. Females were more likely to report IA symptoms than males. Childhood ADHD symptoms, neuroticism, and psychoticism were positively associated with current IA and HI symptoms, while extraversion had an opposite association with these symptom domains. Anxiety symptoms affected HI symptoms in females. Our results indicate that factors associated with categorical ADHD are also correlated with ADHD symptoms in the adult population.
Keywords: ADHD symptomatology; Anxiety; Hurdle negative binomial regression; Personality traits.
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