Phalloplasty: techniques and outcomes

Transl Androl Urol. 2019 Jun;8(3):254-265. doi: 10.21037/tau.2019.05.05.


Phalloplasty is an exceptionally complicated reconstructive procedure that attempts to create a structure that is penis-like. As patient goals vary widely, it is helpful to think about phalloplasty as a modular set of procedures that can be combined, mixed and matched to meet the needs of each individual patient while also taking into account their anatomy. Each module-but particularly the shaft and penile urethra-can be performed using a variety of techniques. To date, there is no consensus among surgeons regarding the optimum staging of the reconstructive steps. Our primary goal is to outline the most frequently performed and reported options in phallic reconstruction and outline the various considerations that go into choosing a given sequence of procedures for the specific patient. The secondary goal of this article is to describe the complications common to each of those modules and how they interact when combined.

Keywords: Phalloplasty; gender confirmation surgery (GCS); penis/surgery; reconstructive surgical methods; review; surgical flaps.

Publication types

  • Review