Kupffer cells and monocyte-derived macrophages are critical for liver repair after acetaminophen (APAP) overdose. These cells produce promitogenic cytokines and growth factors, and they phagocytose dead cell debris, a process that is critical for resolution of inflammation. The factors that regulate these dynamic functions of macrophages after APAP overdose, however, are not fully understood. We tested the hypothesis that the fibrinolytic enzyme, plasmin, is a key regulator of macrophage function after APAP-induced liver injury. In these studies, inhibition of plasmin in mice with tranexamic acid delayed up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines after APAP overdose. In culture, plasmin directly, and in synergy with high-mobility group B1, stimulated Kupffer cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages to produce cytokines by a mechanism that required NF-κB. Inhibition of plasmin in vivo also prevented trafficking of monocyte-derived macrophages into necrotic lesions after APAP overdose. This prevented phagocytic removal of dead cells, prevented maturation of monocyte-derived macrophages into F4/80-expressing macrophages, and prevented termination of proinflammatory cytokine production. Our studies reveal further that phagocytosis is an important stimulus for cessation of proinflammatory cytokine production as treatment of proinflammatory, monocyte-derived macrophages, isolated from APAP-treated mice, with necrotic hepatocytes decreased expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that plasmin is an important regulator of macrophage function after APAP overdose.
Copyright © 2019 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.