Study of Nanostructured TiO₂ Rutile with Hierarchical 3D-Architecture. Effect of the Synthesis and Calcinations Temperature

J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2020 Feb 1;20(2):1303-1314. doi: 10.1166/jnn.2020.16977.


The effect of TiCl₄ hydrolysis temperature on the structural, textural and morphological properties of the resulting rutile and on the changes of these properties upon calcination was studied. The XRD, Raman spectroscopy, mercury porosimetry, BET, SEM and TEM studies have revealed that TiO₂ rutile has a hierarchical 3D-architecture. The obtained nanostructured rutile had a cauliflowerlike/ spherical morphology composed of fan-shaped nanofibers. Rutile samples were shown to have a heterogeneous pore structure including micro-, meso- and macropores with a BET surface area of 110-140 m₂/g. According to the mercury porosimetry, among mesopores and macropores the latter dominate in the samples. Elevation of the synthesis temperature from 50-70 to 80-90 °C decreased the fraction of macropores from 95 to 70%. The BET method showed that the samples synthesized at low temperatures (50-70 °C) contain 30-44% of micropores in the total amount of mesopores and micropores. The fraction of micropores decreases to 25-18% with a subsequent increase in the fraction of mesopores as the synthesis temperature is raised to 80-90 °C. As shown by a study of the samples upon calcination in the temperature range of 100-1000 °C, temperature is the key factor that produces changes in the crystallites size, nanofiber length and packing density, and 3D particle shape at different levels of the hierarchical system and determines features of the porous structure and morphological properties of nanostructured rutile. The assessment of photocatalytic activity in the oxidation of acetone vapor demonstrated that, regardless of the hydrolysis temperature, the synthesized samples of nanostructured rutile are able to oxidize acetone vapor to carbon dioxide and water. In the process, activity of the samples is comparable with that of commercial photocatalysts under UV light and is superior to the activity of commercial photocatalysts P25 (2-4 times) and TiO₂ KRONOS vlp 7000 (1.2-2 times) under visible light in dependence on the synthesis temperature.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't