Background: Patients at greatest risk of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) are those who acquire primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection after solid organ transplantation. The incidence of PTLD among patients who are EBV-seropositive before transplant is lower, and little is known about the differences in presentation and outcome of this population. We describe the characteristics of EBV-seropositive transplant recipients (R+) who developed PTLD and compare survival outcomes with EBV-seronegative recipients (R-).
Methods: A hospital-based registry was used to identify all patients with biopsy-proven PTLD for the period 2000-2014. Characteristics and outcomes were compared between R+ and R- patients with PTLD.
Results: Sixty-nine patients were included, among which 20 (29.0%) were R+ and 49 (71.0%) were R-. Multiorgan transplant patients accounted for 25% of PTLD cases in R+ patients, while accounting for only 2.1% of all transplants during the study period. There was no difference in PTLD site between R+ and R- patients. PTLD among R+ individuals occurred during the second year after transplant (median: 1.92; range: 0.35-3.09 y) compared with during the first year for R- individuals (median: 0.95; range: 0.48-2.92 y; P = 0.380). There was a trend for a higher overall mortality among R+ individuals (log rank: 0.09). PTLD-related mortality did not differ between R+ and R- individuals (log rank: 0.17).
Conclusions: PTLD among R+ individuals was more likely to occur among multiorgan recipients, and there was a tendency for poorer outcomes at 1 and 5 years after the diagnosis of PTLD.