Pheidole comprises approximately 1,000 extant species distributed worldwide, being particularly diverse in the New World. In addition to its high diversity and ecological prevalence, the genus is also characterized by the predominantly intraspecific dimorphism, with major and minor workers. Currently, five fossil species are known, all of which are represented only by minor workers. A new species, †Pheidoleanticua sp. nov., is described from Dominican amber, based on a major worker. Additionally, the identity of the currently known fossil species in Pheidole is discussed and †P.cordata from Baltic amber is considered as incertae sedis, resulting in no Pheidole species currently recognized for Baltic amber.
Keywords: Miocene; morphological diversity; new status; taxonomy.