Relationship between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, bone density, and Parkinson's disease symptoms

Acta Neurol Scand. 2019 Oct;140(4):274-280. doi: 10.1111/ane.13141. Epub 2019 Aug 6.


Objectives: Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Our aim was to determine whether serum vitamin D levels correlated with bone mineral density (BMD) and non-motor symptoms in patients with PD.

Materials & methods: A consecutive series of 182 patients with PD and 185 healthy controls were included. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels were measured by immunoassay, while BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Associations between serum vitamin D levels and clinical data were evaluated using partial correlation analysis.

Results: Patients with PD had significantly lower serum 25(OH)D levels relative to healthy controls (49.75 ± 14.11 vs 43.40 ± 16.51, P < 0.001). Furthermore, PD patients with lower vitamin D levels had a significantly higher frequency of falls (P = 0.033) and insomnia (P = 0.015). They also had significantly higher scores for the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI; P = 0.014), depression (P = 0.020), and anxiety (P = 0.009). Finally, patients with PD also had a significantly lower mean BMD of the lumbar spine (P = 0.011) and femoral neck (P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index, vitamin D levels significantly correlated with falls, insomnia, and scores for the PSQI, depression, and anxiety.

Conclusions: In patients with PD, vitamin D levels significantly correlated with falls and some non-motor symptoms. However, no associations were found between BMD and the serum 25(OH)D levels in patients with PD. Thus, vitamin D supplementation is a potential therapeutic for non-motor PD symptoms.

Keywords: Parkinson's disease; bone mass density; non-motor symptoms; vitamin D.

MeSH terms

  • Absorptiometry, Photon / methods
  • Accidental Falls / prevention & control
  • Aged
  • Bone Density / physiology*
  • Female
  • Femur Neck / diagnostic imaging
  • Humans
  • Lumbar Vertebrae / diagnostic imaging
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Parkinson Disease / blood*
  • Parkinson Disease / diagnostic imaging
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives*
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / blood*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / diagnostic imaging


  • Vitamin D
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D