Vitamin D and Vitamin D Receptor: New Insights in the Treatment of Hypertension

Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2019;20(10):984-995. doi: 10.2174/1389203720666190807130504.


Vitamin D, as a natural medicine, is known to regulate calcium and phosphate homeostasis. But abundant research has shown that vitamin D also plays a regulatory role in autoimmunity, inflammation, angiogenesis and vascular cell activity. Since the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is widely distributed in vascular endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes, the role of vitamin D and VDR in hypertension has received extensive attention. Hypertension is a disease with high incidence and high cardiovascular risk. In recent years, both clinical trials and animal experiments have shown that vitamin D plays a regulatory role in decreasing blood pressure (BP) through inhibiting renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity, modulating function of vascular wall and reducing vascular oxidative stress. A growing body of data suggest that vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk in hypertension, even short-term vitamin D deficiency may directly raise BP and promote target organ damage. Due to the high correlation between vitamin D and hypertension, vitamin D supplementation therapy may be a new insight in the treatment of hypertension. The aim of this review will explore the mechanisms of the vitamin D and VDR in regulating the BP and protecting against the target organ damage.

Keywords: Vitamin D; cardiovascular risk; hypertension; hypertensive organ damage; therapeutic targets; vitamin D receptor..

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antihypertensive Agents* / chemistry
  • Antihypertensive Agents* / pharmacology
  • Antihypertensive Agents* / therapeutic use
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / drug therapy*
  • Receptors, Calcitriol / agonists
  • Receptors, Calcitriol / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Receptors, Calcitriol / metabolism*
  • Renin-Angiotensin System / drug effects
  • Vitamin D / metabolism*
  • Vitamin D / pharmacology*


  • Antihypertensive Agents
  • Receptors, Calcitriol
  • Vitamin D