Deep Learning: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

Annu Rev Vis Sci. 2019 Sep 15;5:399-426. doi: 10.1146/annurev-vision-091718-014951. Epub 2019 Aug 8.


Artificial vision has often been described as one of the key remaining challenges to be solved before machines can act intelligently. Recent developments in a branch of machine learning known as deep learning have catalyzed impressive gains in machine vision-giving a sense that the problem of vision is getting closer to being solved. The goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of recent deep learning developments and to critically assess actual progress toward achieving human-level visual intelligence. I discuss the implications of the successes and limitations of modern machine vision algorithms for biological vision and the prospect for neuroscience to inform the design of future artificial vision systems.

Keywords: action recognition; artificial intelligence; computational neuroscience; deep learning; face recognition; image segmentation; neural networks; object recognition.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Computational Biology
  • Deep Learning*
  • Facial Recognition / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Neural Networks, Computer*