Molecular identification of mosquitoes of the Anopheles maculatus group of subgenus Cellia (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Indonesian Archipelago

Acta Trop. 2019 Nov;199:105124. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.105124. Epub 2019 Aug 5.


This study reports the molecular differentiation of females of Anopheles maculatus s.l. collected in eight localities on five islands in the Indonesian Archipelago: Hargowilis and Hargotirto villages of Central Java Province, North Kalimantan Province, Sabang off the northern tip of Sumatra Province, Sumba Island of East Nusa Tenggara Province and Sulawesi Province. Analyses based on rDNA (ITS2 and D3) and mtDNA (COII) sequences revealed the presence of An. greeni for the first time in North Kalimantan, and at least one novel (previously unrecognized) species of the Maculatus Group in Central Java (Hargowilis). Despite the similarity of rDNA markers of specimens of An. maculatus s.l. from Central Java and Sulawesi, their COII sequences are highly divergent (3.3%), which might indicate the presence of a further new species. Specimens of An. maculatus s.l. from the other localities had identical rDNA sequences to most An. maculatus s.s. from mainland Southeast Asia, but moderate divergence in their COII sequences (1.2-2.1%). The latter might indicate there are further novel species within the Maculatus Complex. However, as the divergence at COII may be the result of geographical structuring within species related to the historical biogeography of the region, further studies are needed to shed light on this possibility.

Keywords: Anopheles maculatus; COII; D3; Genetics; ITS2; Indonesia; Taxonomy.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anopheles / classification*
  • Anopheles / genetics
  • Bayes Theorem
  • DNA, Intergenic / chemistry
  • DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics
  • DNA, Mitochondrial / isolation & purification
  • DNA, Ribosomal / genetics
  • DNA, Ribosomal / isolation & purification
  • Electron Transport Complex IV / genetics
  • Female
  • Indonesia
  • Likelihood Functions
  • Phylogeny
  • Sequence Alignment


  • DNA, Intergenic
  • DNA, Mitochondrial
  • DNA, Ribosomal
  • cytochrome C oxidase subunit II
  • Electron Transport Complex IV