Exosomes are extracellular vesicles with the size of 40-100 nm in diameter and a density of 1.13-1.19 g/mL, containing proteins, mRNAs, miRNAs, and DNAs. Exosomes change the recipient cells biochemical features through biomolecules delivery and play a role in cellular communication. These vesicles are produced from body fluids and different cell types like mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Evidence suggests that mesenchymal stem cells-derived exosome (MSC-EXO) exhibit functions similar to MSCs with low immunogenicity and no tumorization. MSCs can also be isolated from a variety of sources including human umbilical cord (HUC). Because of the non-invasive collection method, higher proliferation and lower immunogenicity, HUCMSC-EXO has been frequently used in regenerative medicine and various diseases treatment compared to the other MSC-EXO resources. This review aimed to investigate the applications of HUCMSC-EXO in different diseases.
Keywords: Clinical application; Exosome; Human umbilical cord; Mesenchymal stem cells.
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