Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (Ad-MSCs) have great potential for bone tissue engineering. Cryogels, mimicking the three-dimensional structure of spongy bone, represent ideal carriers for these cells. We developed poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) cryogels, containing hydroxyapatite to mimic inorganic bone matrix. Cryogels were additionally supplemented with different types of proteins, namely collagen (Coll), platelet-rich plasma (PRP), immune cells-conditioned medium (CM), and RGD peptides (RGD). The different protein components did not affect scaffolds' porosity or water-uptake capacity, but altered pore size and stiffness. Stiffness was highest in scaffolds with PRP (82.3 kPa), followed by Coll (55.3 kPa), CM (45.6 kPa), and RGD (32.8 kPa). Scaffolds with PRP, CM, and Coll had the largest pore diameters (~60 µm). Ad-MSCs were osteogenically differentiated on these scaffolds for 14 days. Cell attachment and survival rates were comparable for all four scaffolds. Runx2 and osteocalcin levels only increased in Ad-MSCs on Coll, PRP and CM cryogels. Osterix levels increased slightly in Ad-MSCs differentiated on Coll and PRP cryogels. With differentiation alkaline phosphatase activity decreased under all four conditions. In summary, besides Coll cryogel our PRP cryogel constitutes as an especially suitable carrier for bone tissue engineering. This is of special interest, as this scaffold can be generated with patients' PRP.
Keywords: 3D-culture; RGD; adipose-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (Ad-MSCs); bone tissue engineering; collagen; cryogel; immune-cell conditioned medium; platelet-rich plasma (PRP); scaffold.
Conflict of interest statement
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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