Common urological problems in children: primary nocturnal enuresis

Hong Kong Med J. 2019 Aug;25(4):305-11. doi: 10.12809/hkmj197916. Epub 2019 Aug 5.


Enuresis is a common complaint in children, with a prevalence of around 15% at age 6 years. Evidence suggests that enuresis could affect neuropsychiatric development. The condition may represent an entire spectrum of underlying urological conditions. It is important to understand the difference between monosymptomatic and non-monosymptomatic enuresis. Primary monosymptomatic enuresis can be managed efficaciously with care in different settings, like primary care, specialist nursing, or paediatric specialists, while non-monosymptomatic enuresis requires more complex evaluation and treatment. The diagnosis, investigation, and management of the two types of enuresis are discussed in this review.

Keywords: Constipation; Enuresis/therapy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antidiuretic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Behavior Therapy
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Deamino Arginine Vasopressin / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Nocturnal Enuresis / diagnosis*
  • Nocturnal Enuresis / epidemiology
  • Nocturnal Enuresis / therapy*
  • Physical Examination


  • Antidiuretic Agents
  • Deamino Arginine Vasopressin