Rice bran has bioactive phytochemicals with cancer protective actions that involve metabolism by the host and the gut microbiome. Globally, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related death and the increased incidence is largely attributed to poor dietary patterns, including low daily fiber intake. A dietary intervention trial was performed to investigate the impact of rice bran consumption on the plasma and urine metabolome of CRC survivors. Nineteen CRC survivors participated in a randomized-controlled trial that included consumption of heat-stabilized rice bran (30 g/day) or a control diet without rice bran for 4 weeks. A fasting plasma and first void of the morning urine sample were analyzed by non-targeted metabolomics using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). After 4 weeks of either rice bran or control diets, 12 plasma and 16 urine metabolites were significantly different between the groups (p≤0.05). Rice bran intake increased relative abundance of plasma mannose (1.373-fold) and beta-citrylglutamate (BCG) (1.593-fold), as well as increased urine N-formylphenylalanine (2.191-fold) and dehydroisoandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) (4.488-fold). Diet affected metabolites, such as benzoate, mannose, eicosapentaenoate (20:5n3) (EPA), and N-formylphenylalanine have been previously reported for cancer protection and were identified from the rice bran food metabolome. Nutritional metabolome changes following increased consumption of whole grains such as rice bran warrants continued investigation for colon cancer control and prevention attributes as dietary biomarkers for positive effects are needed to reduce high risk for colorectal cancer recurrence.
Keywords: colorectal cancer; food metabolites; metabolomics; plasma; rice bran; urine.